2- Sanitary ware:
The first manufacturer of sanitary ware products, Pars
Ceram, was constructed and opened in 1969 in Qarchak,
Varamine. Two other such factories, Mina and Armitaj (Gol-Nama)
were later built and inaugurated to launch their production
line. Meeting the domestic requirements of such products,
prior to that, was totally dependent on imports from Europe.
However as the government attached more significance to
boosting the domestic production in recent years, a giant
step has been taken in this regard. While enjoying promotion
of technology in production, enhancement of quality, diversification
and a wide range of varieties in this industry have been
witnessed. The production capacity of the aforementioned
first three factories totaled 22,000 tons back in 1979.
But this figure jumped to 51,000 tons in 1999, indicating
a remarkable 232% growth compared to 1979. The number
of production units also boosted to 9 indicating 200%
increase. Also in the same year 2,700 workers were employed
with a production of 19 tons per capita. In 1999 some
6,136 tons of sanitary ware were exported amounting to
$2 million. This figure was indicative of 19% and 12%
increase respectively compared to a year before.
| It is evident
that the ceramic pots and dishes have been made for ages.
The industry of making such items is one of the most ancient
ones, as based on the excavated and discovered items we
know that since thousands of years ago man has been making
them in order to meet her/his needs. Clay pots and objects
were made in Iran using argil (red soil or clay) for ages.
Not only Iranians made clay pots but also sculptures.
The traditional way of making clay objects is still used
in some provinces such as Hamedan and Khorasan. As the
machine was introduced in the Iranian china industry four
factories namely Kabon, Alborz, Pars China and Air Porcelain
(Gilan) launched their production activity with a total
annual capacity of 4,780 tons of dishes and pots and other
chinaware products before 1979. Up to the year 1980 about
30,000 tons was the domestic annual demand for above products,
80% of which was met by imports. But during that year,
the government banned the import of chinaware and consequently
the number of relevant factories was increased. Thirteen
production units with an annual nominal capacity of 16,000
tons were active in 1984.
The number of chinaware factories reached 18 in 1999 with
a nominal capacity of 35,650 tons per annum. This figure
reached 46,200 tons a year later. The actual output of
above factories in 1999 amounted to 39,100 tons indicating
65% rise compared to 5 years earlier. Some 9,500 people
were working in the industry. Production per capita was
4 tons with 110% yield (nominal capacity of production).
The output of chinaware factories during the above 5 years
fluctuated between 89% and 110%. Germany produces the
best quality of chinaware in the world, but The Republic
of China ranks first in the world in quantity for production
of chinaware including dishes, pots etc. Iran's consumption
per capita was 0.6 kg in 1999. During the same year the
domestic consumption (sale) level of such products equaled
to 38,147 tons with a value amounting to 534 billion rials.
These figures are indicative of 65% and 192% rise in weight
and value respectively compared to five years earlier.
The export volume of chinaware to the Persian Gulf littoral
States, Canada, Turkey and the Central Asian countries
amounted to 953 tons or $1.1 million in value in 1999.
These figures are indicative of 56.7% and 120% rise in
weight and value respectively compared to a year earlier.
Thus 2.5% of the country's total export volume was allocated
to chinaware in that year
4- Industrial Ceramics:
| Great significance is attached to the
industrial ceramics in the advanced ceramics, as industrial
ceramics are one of the major requirements of advanced
industry. Electricity, metal melting (in steel mills)
and the textile industries are great need of the industrial
ceramics. The country's demand for industrial ceramics
used to be entirely met through imports in the past. However,
the adoption of self- sufficiency policies during the
recent years by the government has caused great significance
to be attached to domestic production of such items. Thus,
three industrial units comprising 658 staff launched the
production of this product in 1999 with 8,850 tons yield.
This volume not only met the domestic requirements but
also paved the way for export of such products. The total
value of exported industrial ceramics was merely $200,000
in this year.